I see some people want lessons
Ok, you shall get them.
First, I'll repeat what I wrote in another thread:
The thing about tennis terms in Latvian is that many people use the English terms (with a Latvian favour, I mean ending) because Latvian expressions either don't exist or they are too long. Let's take the word 'ace' for example. Many people use the same word in Latvian but we write it differently than in English because we have different pronunciation rules. If we write 'eis' in Latvian, it's pronounced the same as 'ace' in English. Now we only add an extra 's' for grammar purposes and we get the word 'eiss'. That's the Latvian version of 'ace'. Funny, isn't it?
You wouldn't find this word in a dictionary because the proper translation of 'ace' is 'Neatvairāma serve' (a serve you can't touch) but most people on the internet use the word 'eiss' (and other forms like 'eisi', 'eisu', 'eisiem' etc.) because it's so much shorter.
The same situation is with the word 'game'. It doesn't have a proper Latvian translation so people take the English version 'geim' and add an 's'. The same is with 'set' - 'sets' although in this case 'sets' is a proper word, it's in dictionaries.
Now let's look at the eSports article here
. It has some very important words in the heading - "Gulbim pirmā uzvara uz zāliena". What does it mean?
- well, you know who Gulbis is
His surname here is used in the Dative case which means 'To Gulbis'.
- the first (feminine form). The masculine form for 'the first' is pirmais
. Why is the female form used here if Gulbis is a male? Because this word describes, goes together with the next word (uzvara
) and that one is feminine.
- a win. A very important word to know
So how do you know it's feminine, not masculine? Easy, feminine words end with -a
while masculine end with -s
- this is a preposition which usually has one of two meanings. It means either 'on' like in 'the laptop is on my desk' or 'to' when showing direction with physical movement involved like 'I'm going to a bookstore'. The preposition uz
requires Genitive when it means 'on' and Accusative when it means 'to'. Yeah complicated, I know, so I won't even tell you that it requires Dative in both meanings if the noun is in plural
- grass. Wait, is it zāliena
then? as I explained before, uz
requires Genitive and zāliena
is the Genitive form of zāliens
. So you see, a word ending with -a
could be either f. Nom. or m. Gen.
I'm sure you love how difficult that is
So what does "Gulbim pirmā uzvara uz zāliena" actually mean? It means that Gulbis got his first win on grass. I know, there's a verb missing there somewhere but that's just because it's a heading. Usually verbs are not omitted.
Here are some phrases just for fun (and using lots of Genitive
geims - a game
sets - a set
spēle - a match
punkts - a point
spēles pirmais punkts - the first point of the match
Ernesta pirmā spēle - Ernest's first match
Ernesta pirmās spēles pirmais sets - the first set of Ernest's first match
Ernesta pirmās spēles pirmais breikpunkts - the first break point of Ernest's first match
pirmā seta pirmais geims - the first game of the first set
Ernesta pirmā spēle uz zāliena - Ernest's first match on grass
Please raise your hand and let me know if Latvian is too hard for you or it's 'nothing' compared to Latin