--- Independence Day
After World War II, a new government was formed in Brunei under the British Military Administration (BMA). It consisted mainly of Australian officers and servicemen. The administration of Brunei was handed over to the Civil Administration on 6 July 1945. The Brunei State Council was also revived that year. The BMA was also tasked to revive the Bruneian economy, which was extensively damaged by the Japanese during their occupation. They were also tasked with putting out the fires started on the wells of Seria, which was started by the Japanese prior to their defeat. Before 1941, the Governor of the Straits Settlements based in Singapore was responsible for the duties of British High Commissioner for Brunei, Sarawak, and North Borneo (now Sabah). The first British High Commissioner for Brunei was the Governor of Sarawak, Sir Charles Ardon Clarke. The Barisan Pemuda (“Youth Movement”) (abbreviated as BARIP) was the first political party to be formed in Brunei. It was formed on 12 April 1946. The aims of the party were to “preserve the sovereignty of the Sultan and the country, and to defend the rights of the Malays.” BARIP also contributed to the formation of the country’s National Anthem. The party was dissolved in 1948 due to inactivity. In 1959, a new constitution was written declaring Brunei a self-governing state, while its foreign affairs, security, and defense remained the responsibility of the United Kingdom. There was a small rebellion against the monarchy in 1962, which was suppressed with help from the United Kingdom. This event became known as the Brunei Revolt and was partly responsible for the failure to create the North Borneo Federation. The rebellion partially affected Brunei's decision to opt out of the Malaysian Federation. Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. The official National Day, which celebrates the country's independence, however, is held on 23 February due to tradition.
Since Independence in 1824, Venezuela has claimed the area of land to the west of the Essequibo river. Letters from Simon Bolivar warned the British government about the Berbice and Demerara settlers settling on land the Venezuelans claimed was theirs. In 1899 an international tribunal ruled the land belonged to Great Britain. Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, remaining a member of the Commonwealth. The US State Department and the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), along with the British government, played a strong role in influencing political control in Guyana during this time. The American government supported Forbes Burnham during the early years of independence because Cheddi Jagan was a self-declared Marxist. They provided secret financial support and political campaign advice to Burnham's People's National Congress to the detriment of the Jagan-led People's Progressive Party, mostly supported by Guyanese of Indian descent.