As you know, in the region that we are called Mesoamerica there are diverse landscapes, from the mountainous snowfalls up to the tropical coasts. A few centuries ago, the region was more humid than now.
In many places that today are dry enough, as the Valley of Mexico, there were forests, lakes and marshes. The animals were abounding for the hunt and the fishing, and many plants that could be gathered. There was a very productive agriculture, of which there was living a more numerous and dense population that other places of America. The trade, the migrations and the military expeditions spread the influence of the most advanced villages. Because of it there are customs, beliefs and forms of work that are common to all the villages of Mesoamerica. The specialists divide Mesoamerica's history in three periods. These periods are:
- Formative or Preclassic one: from 1800 B.C., when there spread the agricultural permanent villages, up to 200 A.D.
- The Classic one: from the 200 to 800. It is the time of brilliance of numerous independent cities and of the big ceremonial centers.
- The Postclassic one: from the 800 up to the arrival of the Spanish. Initially of this period, the most important cities of Mesoamerica were left or destroyed. Later there was the great Aztec dominion, which was dominating great part of Mesoamerica at the beginning of the century, the century of the Conquest.
Infancy and youth in the Aztec society
When a aztec child was born, his birth was celebrated very much. The celebrations were extending for several days in which the astrologers were verifying what day was the best to give name to the child.
Until they were reaching the age in which they had to help to parents in their work, the children were playing out and inside the house. This toy had the form of a dog on wheels.
The infancy lasted only up to six or seven years old. The major children were observing his parents in their tasks.
Seemingly, men and women, rich and poor, were going to the school, the cuicacalli among the twelve and fifteen years old. In the cuicacalli or telpochcalli there was taught general knowledges, singing, dance, and one was learning to touch different musical instruments. The most important aspect of the education of the telpochcalli or cuicacalli was martial: to know the managing of the instruments of war. Another type of school was the calmecac. The children of the nobles or merchants were going to the calmecac (school of the temple) to turn into priests.
From the 11years old, the Aztec disobedient children were punished by his parents. Among the punishments they were finding to puncture the skin with thorns and to make them inhale smoke, supporting them on a bonfire with piquant peppers.
The daily life of the Aztecs
To obtain their food the Aztecs were using the fishing, the hunt, the compilation and the culturing. They were sowing principally corn and in addition bean, chili, tomatoes, gourd, this way as wild aramanths. They had a social division of the work. The men and young men were hunting, were going fishing, were cultivating and harvesting. The women were doing complementary labors, were dealing whit home stuff and of the education of the children.
The chinampa term it is designated in Mexico to a floating garden placed on a lagoon and in that flowers and vegetables are cultivated. The Aztecs were using these gardens for an intensive horticulture.
The organization of the Aztec empire
The power of the Aztecs was owed to his military organization, to the value of his soldiers and to the skill of his leaders. The Aztecs were forming alliances with other villages that did not want to risk a war.
The taxes were coming to Tenochtitlan of all the regions of the empire: food, fabrics, precious articles, and also captive people destined for the sacrifice. This wealth turned to the Aztec capital in a dazzling city.
The Aztec capital had as minimal 100 thousand inhabitants, but some of them think that it was passing from 200 thousand. Tenochtitlan was in islands placed inside one of the lakes of little depth, which in that era were covering most of the Valley of Mexico.
The religion of the Aztecs
The Aztecs were a village of deep religiousness. They had numerous deities. The Aztecs were thinking that it had to demonstrate his gratitude to the gods, to avoid the catastrophes that his ire could cause to the men. For this reason there were so many religious rites and monumental ceremonial centers. There were human and ritual sacrifices of supporting intense physical pains that the believers were taking place intentionally. They were sacrificing many prisoners in his temples.
sorry, if my translation is not good enough